김해출장샵 Methane metabolism - Reference pathway 안동출장아가씨
[ 광양출장샵 | 정읍출장맛사지 | 안양미시출장안마 | 용인출장업소 | 김제출장샵 ]
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD: 용인출장업소 산출장샵 ], methanol to methane [MD: 화성출장마사지 ], and acetate to methane [MD: 강릉외국인출장 ]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD: 영천출장아가씨 ]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in most methanogens and membrane-bound HdrED in Methanosarcina species. In methanotrophs and methyltrophs methane is oxidized to form formaldehyde, which is at the diverging point for further oxidation to CO2 for energy source and assimilation for biosynthesis. There are three pathways that convert formaldehyde to C2 or C3 compounds: serine pathway [MD: 군산출장업소 ], ribulose monophosphate pathway [MD: 평택콜걸 ], and xylulose monophosphate pathway [MD: 안성콜걸 ]. The first two pathways are found in prokaryotes and the third is found in yeast. As a special case of methylotrophs, various amines can be used as carbon sources in trimethylamine metabolism [MD: 태백출장마사지 ].
jnice12-ipp05-wc-zc-0357